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RMS, Average, and Peak Amplitude Measurements

When describing the amplitudes of electronic devices, terms such as "volts RMS" or "amperes RMS" are used. The  RMS (root mean square) of a sine wave produces the same "heating effect" as an equivalent DC voltage level. (i.e. 5 VAC RMS = 5 VDC). Since a given AC RMS amplitude…
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Power Measurements in Inductive Circuits

The AC power drawn from the source (e.g. line - 120VAC @ 60Hz 220VAC @ 50Hz) is the integral over one cycle of the instantaneous watts values. As shown in figure C, during a portion of each cycle power is used by the inductive device (e.g. electric motor), while during…
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Watts Converters

For Distorted Waveshapes of All Types The success of the Valhalla 2100 series wattmeter design is centered around a four-quadrant multiplier. The significance of the four quadrant theory is to provide a proper computation for watts under any phase relation between voltage and current to ensure that indeed EI cos…
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AC-DC Current Shunts vs. Current Transformers
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Power Factor, Real Power, and Apparent Power
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Benefits of Power Analysis